Tuesday, October 8, 2019

What is the meaning of a DAM ,List of DAMs in INDIA

What is DAM? Name of Dam in India- Gernal Knowlege

What is a dam?

Dams are built to control and store water. Dams are made from earth, stacked rock or concrete, and are usually constructed across rivers to store water in the reservoir that is formed behind the dam as a result of the river being blocked.

The International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) defines a dam as ‘an artificial barrier that has the ability to impound water, wastewater, or any liquid-borne material, for the purpose of storage or control of water’.Dams vary immensely in size and shape, from small farm dams that hold water for stock watering, to large dams which store water for large urban centres. This  technical fact sheet is aimed mainly at large dams.

Definition of large dam
*The International Commission on Large Dams defines a large dam as one which is:
 a) More than 15 metres in height measured from the lowest point of the general foundations to the  crest of the dam, 
 b) More than 10 metres in height measured as in (a) provided they comply with at least one of the following conditions:
 i. The crest is not less than 500 metres in length
 ii. The capacity of the reservoir formed by the dam is not less than 1 million cubic metres
 iii. The maximum flood discharge dealt with by the dam is not less than 2000 cubic metres per second
 iv. The dam is of unusual design

How do dams work?
*Dams store water in the reservoir formed behind the dam. The stored water can be used for various consumptive purposes, including use as water for irrigation, or as sources of drinking water for urban and regional towns and cities. The stored water can also be released from the reservoir during the times that natural flows in downstream rivers are inadequate to help meet a variety of environmental objectives. Depending on the catchment area for the dam, the water stored in dam reservoirs is usually easier to treat to a drinking water standard than other sources of drinking water, such as run of river supplies. This is because the long time spent in storage usually improves the quality of the water stored in the reservoir.

What are the benefits of dams?
*Water supply for domestic, irrigation and industrial use
Dams can provide a cost-effective supply of water for domestic, irrigation and industrial use, when compared to other sources of water, such as recycled water, groundwater, desalination and demand management on a cost-benefit analysis. When determining the suitability of dams all water source options should be assessed based on a cost-benefit analysis.

Meeting the agricultural demand for food supply 
*The water stored in dams is critically important to many towns in rural and regional, as they are often the main source of water supply. The dams have enabled many regional and rural towns to prosper and develop economically-important agricultural industries.

Flood control
*Whilst not always their primary purpose, dams provide the opportunity to attenuate flood flows, by their ability to store large volumes of water and then constrain the rate of outflow to downstream rivers through spillways or other release structures.


*Hydroelectricity is electrical energy generated when water that flows down rivers, streams or waterfalls
is channelled through water turbines. In Australia, hydroelectric power is most commonly generated from water is that is stored in dams and then released from the dam through water turbines

*Dams provide opportunities for communities to undertake various recreational activities, such as sailing,
boating and fishing. From a public health perspective it is highly preferable if this onwater recreational activity occurs on dams that store water that is not going to be used as a source of drinking water. Dams can also promote local tourism.

Environmental consequences
There are numerous and varied environmental consequences associated with dams which include direct  impacts to the biological, chemical and physical properties of rivers and riparian environments.  International Rivers lists the following potential environmental consequences of damming rivers: 
• Direct impacts to the biological, chemical and physical properties of rivers and riparian (or “stream side’’) environments 
• Dam walls blocks fish migrations, which in some cases, and with some species, completely separates spawning habitats from rearing habitats 
• Dams trap sediments, which are critical for maintaining physical processes and habitats downstream  of the dam 
• The transformation of the upstream catchment area of the dam, from a free-flowing river, to an artificial slack-water reservoir habitat, which can lead to changes in temperature, chemical  composition, dissolved oxygen levels and the physical properties of a reservoir 
• Reservoirs can host non-native and invasive species, such as snails, algae and predatory fish
• Disrupted and altered flow of rivers, above and below the dam wall, which can cause sustained impacts to aquatic and terrestrial life in and around the rivers as the timing and quantities of river flow are altered

Dams and climate risk
*There is a complex relationship between climate, weather, rainfall and stream flows into dams. The proportion of total rainfall from heavy falls will increase in the 21st century over many areas of the  globe. A one-in-twenty year maximum daily rainfall event is likely to become a one-in-five to one-in-fifteen  year event by the end of the 21st century in many regions. According to the Climate researchs has experienced a step change in its rainfall and stream flow patterns. The long-term  drying trend evident from the mid-1970s places this area and the city of Perth in a position where it is unlikely that any new dams will ever be built.

Name of Dams in india (state wise)

1. Uttaranchal
Ans, Tehri Dam -- Bhagirathi River

2. Himachal Pradesh
Ans. Bhakra Nangal Dam - - Sutlej river

3. Orissa
Ans, Hirakud dam- - Mahanadi River

4. Andhra Pradesh.
Ans. Nagarjuna Sagar Dam 124 meters Krishna River

5. Gujarat
Ans, Sardar Sarovar Dam/ Narmada Dam 163 meters, Narmada River

Other Dams

1. AndhraPradesh
Ans. Nizam Sagar Dam-- Manjira River

2. AndhraPradesh
Ans, Somasila Dam- - Pennar River

3. AndhraPradesh
Ans. Prakasam Barrage - Krishna River

4. AndhraPradesh
Ans. Dindi Reservoir- - Krishna River

5, AndhraPradesh
Ans, -Lower Manair Reservoir

6. AndhraPradesh
Ans, Srisailam Dam -- Krishna River

7. AndhraPradesh
Ans. -Singur dam

8. AndhraPradesh
Ans. Gandipalem Reservoir - - Gandipalem, Manneru River

Ans. Ramagundam Dam - Godavari

10, AndhraPradesh
Ans. Dummaguden Dam - Godavari

11. AndhraPradesh
Ans. Himayat Sagar Reservoir - River Musi

12. AndhraPradesh
Ans. Shriram Sagar Reservoir -- Godavari River
13. AndhraPradesh

Ans. Tatipudi Reservoir Project - - Gosthani River
14. Gujarat
Ans, -Ukai Damn

15. Gujarat
Ans. Dharoi Dam -- Banas River

16. Gujarat
Ans. Kadana dam- Mahi River

17. Gujarat
Ans. Dantiwada Dam- Sabarmati River

18. HimachalPradesh
Ans. Pandoh Dam -- Beas River

19, HimachalPradesh
Ans. Bhakra Nangal Dam - Sutlej River

20. HimachalPradesh
Ans. Nathpa Dam - -Sutlej River

21. HimachalPradesh
Ans. Chamera Dam Ravi River

22, HimachalPradesh
Ans. Gobind Sagar, Reservoir - Sutlej River

23. HimachalPradesh
Ans. -Maharana Pratap Sagar Reservoir

24. Jammu & Kashmir
Ans. Salal Project - Chenab River

25, Jammu & Kashmir
Ans. Baglihar Dam - Chenab River

26. Jammu & Kashmir
Ans. -Chutak Hydroelectric Project -

27. Jammu &. Kashmir
Ans. Dumkhar Hydroelectric Dam - Indus River

28. Jammu & Kashmir
Ans. Uri Hydroelectric Dam - Jhelum River

29. Jharkhand
Ans. Maithon Dam - - Barakar River

30. Jharkhand
Ans. Chandil Dam - - Subarnarekha River

31. Jharkhand
Ans. Panchet Dam-- Damodar River

32. Karnataka
Ans. Tunga Bhadra Dam - Tungabhadra River and Krishna River

33. Karnataka
Ans. Linganamakki dam - Sharavathi River

34. Karnataka
Ans, Kadra Dam --Kalinadi River

35. Karnataka
Ans. Alamatti Dam -- Krishna River

36. Karnataka
Ans. Supa Dam - Kali River

37. Karnataka
Ans. Krishna Raja Sagara Dam - - Cauvery River

38. Karnataka
Ans. Harangi Dam -- Cauvery River

39. Karnataka
Ans. Ghataprabha Reservoir Ghataprabha River

39, Karnataka

Ans. -Manchanabele Dam

42, Karnataka

Ans. Narayanpur Dam , - Krishna River

43, Karnataka
Ans, Kodasalli Dam -- Kali River

44. Karnataka
Ans. -Basava Sagara Dam

45, Karnataka
Ans, -Hemavathi Reservoir

46. Kerala
Ans. Banasura Sagar Dam - - Chalakudy River

47, Kerala
Ans. Malampuzha Dam - Malampuzha River

48. Kerala
Ans, Peechi Dam

49. Kerala
Ans. Idukki Dam -Periyar River

50. Kerala
Ans. Kundala Dam - - Parambikulam River

51. Kerala
Ans. Parambikulam Dam-- Parambikulam River

52. Kerala
Ans. Walayar Dam -- Walayar River

53. Kerala
Ans. Mullaperiyar Dam - Pennar River

Ans. Neyyar Dam - Pennar River

55. MadhyaPradesh
Ans. Rajghat Dam - Betwa River

56. MadhyaPradesh
Ans. Barna Dam - - Barna River

57. MadhyaPradesh
Ans. Indirasagar Project - - Narmada River

58. MadhyaPradesh
Ans. Narmada Dam Project - - Narmada River

59. MadhyaPradesh
Ans. Bargi Dam - - Narmada River

60. MadhyaPradesh
Ans. Bansagar Dam - Son River

61. MadhyaPradesh
Ans. Gandhi Sagar Dam - - Chambal River

62. MadhyaPradesh
Ans, Tawa Reseryoir - - Tawa River

63. Maharashtra
Ans. Yeldari Dam - - Purna River

64. Maharashtra
Ans. Ujani Dam - Bhima River

65. Maharashtra
Ans. Pawna Dam-- Pawna River

66. Maharashtra
Ans, Mulshi Dam - - Mula River

67. Maharashtra
Ans. Koyna Dam - Koyna River

68. Maharashtra
Ans. Jaikwadi Dam - -Godavari River

69. Maharashtra
Ans. Bhatsa Dam - - Bhatsa and Chorna rivers

70. Maharashtra
Ans. Wilson Dam - - Pravara River

71. Maharashtra
Ans, -Tansa Dam

72. Maharashtra
Ans. Panshet Dam - Mutha River

73. Maharashtra
Ans. -Mula Dam

74. Maharashtra
Ans. Kolkewadi Dam - Koyna River

75, Maharashtra
Ans. Girna Dam - - Girna and Godavari River

76, Maharashtra
Ans. Bhandardara Dam - - Arthur Lake

77. Maharashtra
Ans. Vaitarna Dam - - Vaitarna River

78. Maharashtra
Ans. Radhanagari Dam - - Bhogawati River

79, Maharashtra

Ans, -Nandur Madhmeshwar

80. Maharashtra

Ans. Manair Dam- Manair River

81. Maharashtra
Ans. Khadakwasla Dam--Mutha River

82. Maharashtra
Ans. -Gangapur Dam

83. Orissa
Ans -Jalaput Dam -

84. Orissa
Ans. Balimela Reservoir -- Sileru River

85. Orissa
Ans. Indravati Dam- Indravati River

86. Orissa
Ans. Hirakud Dam - Mahanadi River

87. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Vaigai Dam -- Vaigai River

88. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Aliyar Reservoir River :Aliyar

89. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Chittar Reservoir--Chittar River

90. Tamil Nadu
Ans. -Krishnagiri Reservoir

91. Tamil Nadu
Ans. -Manimuthar Reservoir

92. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Pechiparai Reservoir - River Kodayar

93, Tamil Nadu
Ans. -Soolagiri Chinnar Reservoir

94. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Thunakadavu Reservoir - - Chalakudy River

95. Tamil Nadu
 Ans. -Varattupallam Reservoir

96. Tamil Nadu
Ans. -Vidur Reservoir

97. Tamil Naduu
Ans. Perunchani Dam -- Paralayar River

98. Tamil Nadu
Ans. -Amaravathi Reseryoir

99. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Gundar Reservoir - Berijam Lake

100. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Kullursandai Reservoir - Arjuna Nadi

101, Tamil Nadu
Ans. Pambar Reservoir - - Pambar River

102. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Periyar Reservoir - - Periyar River

104. Tamil Nadu
Ans. -Uppar Reservoir

105. Tamil Nadu
Ans, Vattamalaikarai Odai Reservoir -- Odai River

106. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Willingdon Reservoir -- Periya Odai River

107. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Mettur Dam - - Kaveri River

108. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Bhavanisagar Reservoir - Bhavani River

109. Tamil Nadu
Ans. Kodaganar Reservoir - Kodagananar River

110. Tamil Nadu
Ans, -Manimukthanadhi Reservoir

111, Tamil Nadu
Ans. Parambikulam Reservoir - - Parambikulam River

112. Tamil Nadu

Ans. -Sholayar Reservoir

113, Tamil Nadu

Ans, Thirumurthi Reservoir Parmabikulam Aliyar

114. Tamil Nadu
Ans, -Varadamanadhi Reservoir

115, Tamil Nadu
Ans, Vembakottai Reservoir - Vaippar River

116, Tamil Nadu
Ans. -Manjalar Reservoir

117. UttarPradesh
Ans. Parichha Dam-Betwa River

118, UttarPradesh
Ans. Rihand Project - Rihand River and Son River

119, UttarPradesh
Ans. Govind Ballabh 112. Tamil Nadu

120, Uttrakhand
Ans, Tehri Dam -- Bhagirathi River

121, Uttrakhand
Ans. Dhauli Ganga Dam - - Ganga River

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